воскресенье, 15 ноября 2009 г.

Основные команды Ubuntu.

Привилегии
sudo command – run command as root
sudo -s – open a root shell
sudo -s -u user – open a shell as user
sudo -k – forget sudo passwords
gksudo command – visual sudo dialog (GNOME)
kdesudo command – visual sudo dialog (KDE)
sudo visudo – edit /etc/sudoers
gksudo nautilus – root file manager (GNOME)
kdesudo konqueror – root file manager (KDE)
passwd – change your password

Экран
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart – restart X and return to login (GNOME)
sudo /etc/init.d/kdm restart – restart X and return to login (KDE)
(файл) /etc/X11/xorg.conf – display configuration
sudo dpkg-reconfigure -phigh xserver-xorg – reset X configuration
Ctrl+Alt+Bksp – restart X display if frozen
Ctrl+Alt+FN – switch to tty N
Ctrl+Alt+F7 – switch back to X display

Системные службы
start service – start job service (Upstart)
stop service – stop job service (Upstart)
status service – check if service is running (Upstart)
/etc/init.d/service start – start service (SysV)
/etc/init.d/service stop – stop service (SysV)
/etc/init.d/service status – check service (SysV)
/etc/init.d/service restart – restart service (SysV)
runlevel – get current runlevel

Управление пакетами
apt-get update – refresh available updates
apt-get upgrade – upgrade all packages
apt-get dist-upgrade – upgrade Ubuntu version
apt-get install pkg – install pkg
apt-get remove pkg – uninstall pkg
apt-get autoremove – remove obsolete packages
apt-get -f install – try to fix broken packages
dpkg --configure -a – try to fix broken packages
dpkg -i pkg.deb – install file pkg.deb
(файл) /etc/apt/sources.list – APT repository list

Сеть
ifconfig – show network information
iwconfig – show wireless information
sudo iwlist scan – scan for wireless networks
sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart – reset network for manual configurations
(файл) /etc/network/interfaces – manual configuration
ifup interface – bring interface online
ifdown interface – disable interface

Специальные пакеты
ubuntu-desktop – standard Ubuntu environment
kubuntu-desktop – KDE desktop
xubuntu-desktop – XFCE desktop
ubuntu-minimal – core Ubuntu utilities
ubuntu-standard – standard Ubuntu utilities
ubuntu-restricted-extras – non-free, but useful
kubuntu-restricted-extras – KDE of the above
xubuntu-restricted-extras – XFCE of the above
build-essential – packages used to compile programs
linux-image-generic – latest generic kernel image
linux-headers-generic – latest build headers

Брандмауэр
ufw enable – turn on the firewall
ufw disable – turn off the firewall
ufw default allow – allow all connections by default
ufw default deny – drop all connections by default
ufw status – current status and rules
ufw allow port – allow traffic on port
ufw deny port – block port
ufw deny from ip – block ip adress

Названия приложений
nautilus – file manager (GNOME)
dolphin – file manager (KDE)
konqueror – web browser (KDE)
kate – text editor (KDE)
gedit – text editor (GNOME)

Система
Recovery - Type the phrase “REISUB” while holding down Alt and SysRq (PrintScrn) with about 1 second between each letter. Your system will reboot.
lsb_release -a – get Ubuntu version
uname -r – get kernel version
uname -a – get all kernel information